Tuesday, September 22, 2020

 Got GERD?

As early as the 1970’s, chiropractors understood that the cardiac sphincter, located in the diaphragm as a passageway for the esophagus leading into the stomach, could become lax, allowing the stomach to move upwards through that sphincter. If the top part of the stomach slips through the cardiac sphincter, acid will now flow into the esophagus, causing burning, belching and pain.

In my office the solution is so simple, it takes 5 minutes to correct. First, the stomach is palpated to determine if it has ascended through the opening in the diaphragm. Then it is pulled down in one painless movement. The cardiac sphincter is then treated with a reflex movement that causes it to gently tighten to its original state. In addition, steps are taken to enhance nerve flow to the diaphragm so that it is perfectly attuned to allowing food to pass through the cardiac sphincter and not acid flow.

Secondly, digestive supplements are given in the form of pepsin and HCl which signal the stomach to stop producing acid. Taken with meals, the acid overproduction stops in a matter of days.

The result? Patients feel relief immediately or in 24 hours, depending how long they have suffered. If the patient has experienced this issue for more than 3 months, it may take a second treatment. Other digestive supplements may be recommended if there is a tendency to bloat. In addition, it is useful for the patient to make adjustments to their diet regime if they are eating foods that they do not tolerate or that negatively affect other digestive organs such as the small intestine or the liver.

In addition, a hiatal hernia may induce other issues in the digestive tract, including esophageal spasms, pyloric valve spasm and issues with the bile and hepatic dict, hepatic and splenic flexures as well issues with the sphincter of Oddi, which connects the pancreas to the small intestine. These are all easily diagnosed through reflex testing and then corrected. Symptoms may include pain upon swallowing pills, nausea, bloating, undiagnosed right or left side pain and the reflux/dry cough that many experience with hiatal hernias.

For assessment of the cause of your GERD symptoms, call my office at (805) 687-1617.

You may read more here:https://www.drvaleriegirard.com/post/can-t-stomach-gerd

Sunday, May 19, 2019

The Beauty of Dehydrating

So many foods can be dehydrated at just the perfect temperature so that they retain their nutrients yet stay fresh for longer periods of time. Anyone who knows me has sampled my dried persimmons that I generally make at Christmas and share. This year I received 150 persimmons which took DAYS to dehydrate but was totally worth it, especially when you can bribe people for favors in exchange for a bag of these gorgeous treats.

My NEW favorite thing is dehydrated raspberries with chia seeds. So YUM!

Raspberrie Chia Chips

Image result for raspberriesSoak two tablespoons of chia seeds in water for several hours.

Take a package of frozen raspberries and place in blender with 3 tablespoons of pomegranate juice. Blend until smooth.

Add chia seeds and blend until mixed

Add 2 tablespoons of dried coconut if you like and blend for 30 seconds.

Pour on to the lowest tray with no holes and spread to edges

Place on 135 degrees and dehydrate over night for 7-8 hours.

You may wish to flip it over to get the residual moisture out and dry for 1-2 more hours until leathery or crisp.

Break into chip size pieces and store in a plastic sandwich bag.

Sunday, June 15, 2014

Upgrade your Health - Minimize These "Foods"

Why eat these “foods” when you can eat real foods! Eat in more, then your best when you dine out.

1. High Fructose Corn Syrup
This is not food! This is a highly indigestible substance that poses as food! This substance is highly lobbied by the Corn Growers Association and is literally allowed in many processed foods.  HFCS contains contaminants including mercury that are not regulated or measured by the FDA and its inclusion is almost always a sign that the food is a poor quality substance being passed off as food.

2. Sugar causes inflammation! Inflammation causes disease, including cancer and heart issues. It impedes recovery from illness and injury. Most sugars are stripped of their nutrition, adding calories and acidity. Substitute with maple syrup and stevia.

3. Trans-fat Vegetable Oils/Margarine. Oils are created by manipulating chemical bonds to solidify them into solid fats, so that they resemble butter. These fats are known to increase the risk of heart disease.

4. GMO foods: These foods will be deemed increasingly dangerous in the years to come. Read labels – Avoid! Really! Too many reasons to list here but think of this: Europe, Australia, Japan and others ban their use.

5. Cow Dairy: Ever heard of A1 Beta-Casein? It is substantially more toxic than gluten and is in most US dairy products from cows. Non-organic dairy also is plagued with steroids, hormones and antibiotics and will be susceptible to the effects of radiation.

6. Soy Products. Non-organic soy products contain non beneficial estrogenic compounds and are produced via high heat and chemicals. Its use can interfere with hormone balance and decrease thyroid function. Fermented soy products such as tamari and miso may be tolerated by most.

7. Mercury Containing Fish. Avoid Tuna, Swordfish, Tilefish, Mackerel, and Orange Roughy. Consider the source of your sea foods….shrimp from the Gulf of Mexico (BP oil spill) or fish from the North Pacific (radiation from Fukishima) should be avoided.

8.Non-Organic Meats. Most cows eat pesticide-filled grains which turn their fat into Omega 6, a fatty acid that creates inflammation, heart issues, diabetes, hormone issues to name a few. Grass feed beef, eaten occasionally, is more sustainable and healthier for you.

9. Fake Sugar. This is not the way to save calories! Cyclamates, Splenda and Aspartame are chemicals that should not be consumed. Try Stevia in very small quantities or fruit juice when baking.

10. Grain/Gluten Products. Most grains are GMO and contain high levels of gliadins and gluten, which tends to be inflammatory. They also tend to raise glucose levels in the body and not easy to digest, thereby causing bloating and gas.

11. Non-Organic Fruits and Vegetables.  Why would you want to ingest pesticides and herbicides? Root vegetables are the worst as they filter out chemicals and pesticides from soil and water.

12. Soda. There is no redeeming factor to soda, whether it is sugar filled or diet soda. Do not consume. Don’t let your kids consume sodas. Make your own from sparling water and real juice.

Next time:

Real Foods to enhance a long life.

Thursday, September 12, 2013

The Best Gluten-Free Recipes

                      Please visit me at 
1725 State Street B, Santa Barbara, CA 93101   (805) 687-1617 
   Send your gluten-free recipes to share with others to
As a Santa Barbara chiropractor for over 30 years now, I have witnessed many of my patient's change their diets to exclude wheat and gluten. Why? Gluten can cause inflammation, allergies and digestive issues in many people, partly because wheat has been genetically modified (GMO) and is less digest-friendly than it used to be. Travel to France or other European countries that do not modify wheat and you will find that gluten intolerant people can assimilate it without the same reactions as the gluten in the US.
In order to promote nutrition, I am  sharing some of my beloved recipes that are gluten free and often dairy free, using no sugar, soy or artificial ingredients. I encourage the use of local organic produce whenever possible. I grow my own at home in my garden. 
I hope that you enjoy these and are inspired to prepare healthier, delicious food that is healthy - with style.  

Alkalizing Soup        

3-4 Organic Celery Stalks
1 Lb. of Green Beans
3-4 medium Organic Zucchini
Handful of Parsley
Steam all of these greens in 2 inches of water until bright green. Turn off heat for 5 minutes and let sit. Place vegetables and water in blender, blend until very smooth.
There is no need to add salt or any flavoring as it is delicious just as it is. Very healthy, tasty and healing if you are enduring a cold or the flu. Great cold or warm.

Avocado Cucumber Soup
 In blender or Vitamix add the following ingredients in this order:
1 cup chicken or vegetable broth
1-2 avocados, medium
1 1/2 cups of cucumber in pieces
1 handful cilantro
1 lemon peeled
1 lime peeled
1/4 teaspoon salt
1/4 teaspoon or more of cayenne
1 clove garlic
You may add these ingredients one by one or all at once if you have a  blender or Vitamix. Chill for 2 hours and then serve

Budman's Hotcakes
These are the best hotcakes I have ever had. My dad has perfected this recipe. Sundays are hotcake days at the family house. We all hike and then gather to enjoy these melt-in-your-mouth creations of pure yumminess. Of course, they are gluten free!
1 ½ c  Corn Flour
¾ C  Non-gluten flour blend
1/3 c cane sugar or use a smaller amount of dry stevia
2 tsp. baking powder
1 ½ tsp xanthum gum
½ to 1 tsp. sea salt
2 large eggs
2 cups of milk, Rice dream or coconut milk
1/3 c melted coconut oil
Water to thin
Combine dry and liquid ingredients in separate bowls. Add dry to liquid in batches and stir in. Add water so that it is a smooth pourable batter. You may separate yolks and beat egg white until stiff for waffles.
Griddle must be medium hot if stove stop. Pour small amount on it to test. When bubbles appear, then flip once only. Should be golden brown.
When golden brown on bottom, serve hot, or place batches under a dishtowel covering a plate.
Serve with coconut oil, ghee, maple syrup or fresh fruit!

Butternut Squash Flan
It is fun to grow your own squash. This dish is great with holiday meals, salmon or even for dessert.
1 medium steamed/roasted butternut squash (about 1 1/2 pounds), squared
1 cup light coconut milk
4 large egg whites
2 large eggs
1/4 cup maple syrup
3 tbsp. pure vanilla extract
1 1/2 teaspoons grated ginger
1 tsp cinnamon
1/2 tsp nutmeg
1/4 tsp ground cloves 
 May add a square of candied ginger or pecans
Place two large eggs in blender. Whip. Add light coconut milk and steamed squash – blend until a puree. Then add 1/8 cup maple syrup and spices. Blend.
Beat egg whites until stiff. Fold into squash mixture.
Divide batter evenly among 9 (5-ounce) ramekins or custard cups. Take remaining maple syryp and lace a bit on the top. You may add candied ginger or pecans on top for garnish.
Place ramekins in large roasting pan and add enough hot water to pan to come halfway up sides of ramekins. Cover entire pan with foil and bake until flans are set in the middle, or 32 to 35 minutes for 5-ounce ramekins.
Transfer roasting pan to cooling rack and let flans rest in water, uncovered, until room temperature, then remove ramekins from water and refrigerate until thoroughly chilled, about 3 hours.
Serve flans in ramekins, or slide flexible knife around side of each ramekin, pulling up slightly from bottom to break seal, then cover with dessert plate and invert to unmold.

California Marinade

For Salmon and Chicken

2 cloves garlic
Juice of 3 Limes
tbsp. sea salt
1/4 cup Olive Oil

Mince garlic, juice limes. Add olive oil and sea salt. Shake in jar. Place salmon or chicken in dish. Pour marinade over it evenly. Refrigerate for 1-2 hours.
Pour marinade over uncooked side of fish or chicken before you turn it. Delicious!

Caramelized Yams

7 yams, cubed in 1 inch square
4 tbsp. grated ginger
¼ cub walnut oil
¼ cup orange juice
4 tbsp. of maple syrup
In a bowl place grated ginger walnut oil or melted coconut oil and orange juice. Add cubed yams and toss until the yams are well coated.
Spread yams out on big cookie sheet. Bake at 400 for 50 minutes. Turn every 15 minutes. When yams become tender to the fork poke, lace a small amount of maple syrup over the top and place under broiler for a two minutes, then turn, lace with more maple syrup and broil for two more minutes or until yams caramelize on surface.
Cashew Milk
This delicious substitute for any kind of milk will make any herbal tea or caffinated drink something to look forward to having. I love this in Bengal Spice tea from Celestial Seasonings, Teechino or Ginger Tea.
Soak 1 cup of cashew pieces in pure water over night
Place in blender with one cup of coconut water
Add 1 cup of water or more for desired consistency
Blend for 5 minutes or more.
Store in container with lid for up to ten days
Galette is French for cake. In this recipe, you can add any number of items to make a very wholesome breakfast that is full of fiber, protein and taste. I find this meal lasts me until one o'clock when I take my lunch.
2 handfuls of organic oat bran
1 egg or 2 egg whites
2 tbsp. of goat, cashew, rice or almond milk
1/2 tsp vanilla
1 tbsp. blueberries or other berries
6 walnut halves
Heat pan on low heat
Beat egg so it is a bit frothy
Add oatbrain and stir
Add milk until it is a medium consistency
Add vanilla and berries
Pour mixture into heated galette or a one egg pan.
Place walnut halves on top
Cook until sides are cooked about 5 minutes, then flip to cook other side.
Enjoy with coconut oil on top for a healthy treat that is cleansing for blood and good for the brain.
Santa Barbara Green Drink

Can I tell you how much I LOVE my green drink in the morning? Forget the coffee, this makes me feel fabulous! The greens alkalanize your system and power you up with vitamins and minerals. The cilantro chelates out heavy metals, especially mercury. The lemon, parsley and ginger are detoxifying. The green tea and parsley are powerful anti-cancer agents. The apple or coconut make it taste so delicious, you will crave this dreink daily. Your eyes and skin will get clearer as you detoxify over the weeks that you enjoy this great morning (and evening) drink.
In a blender or Vitamix add the following in this order:
1/2 -1 cup Organic unfiltered apple juice or
1/2 cup unsweetened coconut water
2 cups brewed green tea
1 whole lemon, peeled
1 medium cucumber, in pieces
1 c fresh washed organic kale or other greens
1/2- 1 cup or more cilantro
1/2 c. parsley
1 small chunk of ginger
3 stalks of celery, in pieces
5-6 ice cubes
Start your blender on low speed and gradually increase to full speed. Blend for 2-3 minutes until greens are well pulverized. You may need to push mash towards blades.
Makes 3-4 servings of drink.
Maison Yum

This is one of the best dishes I have ever eaten. I first enjoyed it at a workshop I taught when I had all of my students bring a healthy gluten free dish to be enjoyed. Karen Clark brought this dish. She was a few minutes late, explaining that she had been up since 6:00am carmelizing onions. I could not believe my mouth…each morsel melted in my mouth in harmonious splendor. This is my version of it and if you want to taste the actual recipe, then call my office and see if you can get her to make it for you. So Delicious!
3-4 Medium onions or 2 large ones
4 large beets, golden and red
Olive oil
4-5 cloves garlic to taste
Garlic olive oil
2 cups Red Quinoa
1 tbsp. tamari
2 tbsp. Lemon juice
Lemon slices
3 tbsp. parsley
Cut up beets in bite size pieces. Toss with olive oil and garlic or garlic olive oil and place on a flat sheet. Roast at 325 for one hour until they are shrunken, carmelized and sweet.
Sliver the onions and place on low heat with olive oil. Cook down for 1 hour. The last 20 minutes add 2 tbsp. of ghee or butter. Stir every 4 minutes. 

Stuffed Portobello Mushrooms

6 small Portobello Mushrooms or 2 large PortObellas
1 small red bell pepper
1 Medium tomato
¼ cup fresh basil leaves
4-5 cloves of garlic
Olive oil
2 tbsp.Tamari
1/3 cup goat cheese

Preheat oven to 350ª
Take out stems of mushrooms and chop. Chop bell pepper and tomatoes into small pieces. Mince garlic and basil.
Place garlic in mushroom cap
Place pepper, tomato and mushroom into caps
Place small amounts of goat cheese on top
Sprinkle basil on top.
Place mushrooms in a pan
Mix olive oil and tamari and drizzle over mushrooms. Allow some to coat the bottom of the pan.
Bake for 20 minutes or until mushrooms are tender.
Gluten Free Pumpkin Pie
½ cup coconut oil
2 cups gluten free granola
3 eggs
1 can light coconut milk
½ cup organic brown sugar
1 lg can of pumpkin
4 tbsp. of maple syrup
½ cup of walnuts or pecans
Allspice, cinnamon,  fresh grated ginger
Bourbon vanilla extract
Pinch of salt

Melt coconut oil in pan. Place granola in blender or food processor and pulverize until grainy. Add to melted coconut oil and mix. Take this mixture and pat into bottom of a 9 x 13 in pan to form a crust. If you like a thicker crust, double the ingredients.
Take 3 eggs and place in blender and whip until frothy. Add pumpkin, coconut milk, maple syrup, brown sugar, ginger, salt, spices and vanilla to this mixture and blend.
Pour into prepared pan gently. Sprinkle a pattern of walnuts or pecans to make it festive.
Bake at 350 for 35- 45 minutes, then check to see if it is firm when you move it. A knife should come out clean.
Cut in squares and enjoy with fresh cashew cream on top.
Salad Platters
I love picking fresh veggies out of our garden and making beautiful mandalas out of them for guests – or just our family. At the end of the day, my brain appreciates the creative gesture and eyes and palate feast on the finished product.
Here are pictures and some suggestions.
Line a platter or plate with your bigger leaves of romaine.
Or place an even spread of organic spring mix
Cut carrots into pennies and line the perimeter
Small Persian cucumbers add another layer or divide areas by overlapping them
Small bundles of chopped walnuts or candied pecans offer accents
Add protein bundles such as BBQ’s shrimp or seared Ahi Tuna
Bell peppers add so much color, red, green and yellow
Go fruity with grapefruit slices, red onion and avocado – family favorite!
Use goat cheese or blue cheese to make your salad a richer yummier meal
Hummus or baba ganoush is an excellent accent
Steam or grill asparagus and lay slices to decorate
Grill or roast eggplant, peppers and tomatoes
Boil or roast potatoes and add capers, cooked green beans and tuna
Avocados are excellent to add flavor
Black and green olives, artichoke hearts and capers are fun accents
Hard boiled eggs add color, flavor and protein.
Grill peaches, add pecans and cranberries
Cheltenham House Dressings
3 cloves garlic, chopped very fine
1 cup olive oil, virgin organic, cold pressed
Juice of 3-4 lemons
1 tbsp.. of stone ground mustard
Pinch of Himalayan sea salt
Place in cruet and shake vigorously…every time!
Santa Barbara Drizzle
Take 1 cap of  Il Fustino organic, virgin cold pressed olive, walnut or pistachio oil, and drizzle over salad platter. Next drizzle 1 cap Il Fustino 25 year old balsalmic vinegar. Then 1 cap of olive oil over the drizzle. This is amazing tasting....especially over a platter of fresh tomatoes and romaine out of your garden. It really pops the flavor of the vegetables.
If you live in the Santa Barbara area, you might want to visit this unique shop located just up the street from our office at 3401 State Street. We love their products and hope you will have a moment to stop for some free samples of their delicious offerings.
Shaman's Soup

Many of my patients swear that this has healed them from their colds and flus! Delicious as a meal, for breakfast, lunch or dinner. Add lots of lime for extra Vitamin C. Most of the ingredients have an antibiotic effect on the body.
1 arm of ginger, chopped
1 bulb of garlic, chopped
¼ cup olive oil
1tsp or less of cayenne
6 oz. shitake mushrooms sliced
6 oz. crimini mushrooms, sliced
1 ½ quarts chicken stock
1 lb. of chicken, 1 inch cubes. ( may sub a whole chicken and remove the bones when cooked)
1 c corn hominy (optional)
4 large peeled carrots
½ cup chipotle sauce (optional)
10 limes, juiced
½ c chopped cilantro (optional)
1 cup cabbage
Sauté’ garlic and ginger in olive oil. Add favorite pepper: cayenne or chipotle.
Add both sliced mushrooms and stir until softened
Add cubed chicken and brown.
Add chicken stock and stir.
You may add corn posole if you want.
Simmer for 20 minutes at medium-low heat
Add chopped carrots
Simmer for 10 minutes.
Turn off heat and add lime juice and let stand.
Top with cabbage and cilantro as desired
Any Summer Squash Soup
I invented this soup this morning when my cooking muses visited me. This is fabulous to make when you have large squashes in your garden that have gotten a bit hefty! We had many varieties that wanted to be enjoyed.
4 onions, slivered
5 cloves of garlic, chopped
5 tbsp. chopped ginger
6 tbsp. of olive oil4 tbsp. Ghee or butter ( use more olive oil if you are strict about not using butter)
2 lbs. squash (zucchini, pan patty, striped, crookneck etc), cubed
1 cup chicken or veggie stock
2 tbsp. tamari
1 ½  cups coconut milk
Chop and sliver 4 onions. Place in skillet with 3 tbsp. olive oil and 2 tbsp ghee or butter. Slowly simmer for one hour or more until caramelized. Should be brown and very soft.

Use any and all summer squash and chop into one inch cubes.
Chop garlic and ginger into small pieces.
In large pot, heat 3 tbsp. olive oil on a low flame. Add ginger and garlic and stir until the oil is infused with both. Add 2 tbsp. butter.
Add squash and stir for 5-10 minutes until the squash cubes are coated with infused oil.
Keep stirring onions!
Add chicken or vegetable stock. Continue stirring.
Add Tamari and stir.
Keep stirring onions!
Keep stirring squash until they get soft. Turn off burner.
When onions are caramelized, remove from heat.
Add 1/3 portion of squash and 1/3 of onions and 1/2 cup coconut milk into blender. Blend and put aside.
Repeat with the next 1/3 etc. until it is homogenized. Add portions all together and add more water or stock to thin if necessary. Eat hot or cold. Even great for breakfast!

Quinoa Stuffed Peppers
Shop either at your local produce store or the Farmer's Market for the new variety of Heirloom peppers that are coming out. Fall is a particularly great time for peppers...they are sweet and blooming with colors. I found ones that were purple and yellow, green and orange, bright red, yellow and orange and outright purple! Make your quinoa ahead of time and stuff them before your dinner. You will need about an hour to slow bake them.
4-6 Peppers, medium to large
2 cups of quinoa, cooked in 1/2 c of chicken broth and water
1/2 cup of grated Parmesian (or Pecorino Romano which is made from sheep's cheese)
1/2 small can of green chile peppers, chopped
2 tbsp. of tamari (its gluten free)
Olive oil
Cook up quinoa with chicken broth and green chiles. Add tamari and cheese and toss. Slice most of the top of the pepper off. Reach in and take out the seeds. Spoon in the quinoa mixture.
Rub the peppers with olive oil and place in baking dish. Bake at 350 for 1 hour.

Thai Mushroom Soup
This most excellent soup is made in 10 minutes...the time it takes to saute' a pound of mushrooms! Another Vitamix special....or use your  blender. It puts coconut oil in your diet which is excellent in aiding in preventing Alzheimers disease. Serves 4-6.
1 Lb. of mushrooms
3 tbsp. of coconut oil
3 tbsp. of grated ginger
2 limes, juiced
1 small can light coconut milk
1 cup chicken broth
3 tbsp.tamari (gluten free soy sauce)
pinch of sea salt
1-2 pinches of cayenne
1/4 tbsp. of garlic power or 1 fresh garlic clove.
Slice mushrooms and grate ginger into a saute pan. Add coconut oil and garlic, saute over medium heat. While they are sauteing, place all other ingredients into the blender. Blend, then remove half of the liquid. When mushrooms are tender, add half of the mushrooms in  blender. Turn blend from low to high several times to chop mushrooms and blend ingredients. Pour this out into container, then blend the other half of mushrooms and mixture. If you have a Vitamix, all of this will fit in the 64 oz. blending container.
Put in refrigerator overnight to marry the flavors. Then heat and serve. Delicious!

Turkey Tacos

This is our favorite when we have teenagers around or house guests. It is easy to prepare and very delicious. The added zucchini takes on the flavor of the seasoning and adds veggies to your dish. Tomatoes, cabbage and cilantro plus a green salad make this a well-rounded meal. Serves 4-6 people.
3 tbsp. olive oil
½ medium Onion
3 cloves of Garlic
1 lb. ground turkey
1 medium zucchini grated
3 medium Roma tomatoes chopped
¼ cup green olives, sliced
2. tbsp. tamari
Pinch cayenne to taste or Taco seasoning
8 Organic corn taco shells or Romaine leaves
½  cup grated Manchego cheese
Handful cilantro, finely chopped
½ cup green cabbage
Your favorite salsa ( I like green tomatillo for this dish)
Avocado slices if desired
Place olive oil in frying pan on medium heat and add onions and garlic. Add ground turkey and brown. Add zucchini and tomatoes, green olives and stir. Then add Tamari and cayenne to taste or your favorite Taco seasoning. Let simmer for 8 -10 minutes on a medium low heat.
Heat shells at 250º for 2-3 minutes. Place taco mixture, then cheese then cilantro and cabbage mixture on top. Add sliced avocadoes if desired. Serve with your favorite salsa and a green salad.

Raspberrie Chia Chips

Image result for raspberriesSoak two tablespoons of chia seeds in water for several hours.

Take a package of frozen raspberries and place in blender with 3 tablespoons of pomegranate juice. Blend until smooth.

Add chia seeds and blend until mixed

Add 2 tablespoons of dried coconut if you like and blend for 30 seconds.

Pour on to the lowest tray with no holes and spread to edges

Place on 135 degrees and dehydrate over night for 7-8 hours.

You may wish to flip it over to get the residual moisture out and dry for 1-2 more hours until leathery or crisp.

Break into chip size pieces and store in a plastic sandwich bag.
                                       Dr. Valerie Girard, Chiropractor

                                                  Your Health and Wellness Specialist
                              1725 State Street B, Santa Barbara, CA 93101   (805) 687-1617  (805) 682-1365 fx.